The emergence of modern science began as a move from theological-based reasoning to observational- and empirically-based reasoning. Two areas of reasoning evolved from this time, inductive and deductive. For example, Galileo, using mathematics and observation, explained the laws of the physical world through deductive reasoning. Francis Bacon, however, sought answers to questions of the physical world through observation and devised many theories from these observations. Cartesian dualism is one school of thought that examined the mind-body relationship. Several branches of scientific thought developed which was based in part on the philosophical underpinnings of the region (e.g. British, French and German). These included positivism, rationalism, and empiricism. From these philosophical views emerged a focus on understanding behavior or more precisely the mind.
- Compare and contrast the views of Galileo and Bacon. Explain why these two scientists had an impact on the development of psychology.
- Compare the basic principles of Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and John Locke. How do these principles differ in their perspectives of the mind-body relationship? What do these principles add to the comprehensive understanding of psychology as a science? University Standard Rubric.
- Explain the cultural and even nationalistic influences on how the different schools of thought developed (positivism, rationalism, and empiricism)? Explain how theological or religious beliefs influence the different schools of thought as they had done to the philosophical views of early centuries?