(SOLVED) Interpersonal network . relationship power and equity
Interpersonal network . relationship power and equity • social support and trust including families .lationship satisfaction • communication level rationship halvintimacy interpersonal violence . Invel of relationship commitment • social networks/coalition par Structural • poverty • access to services indrastructure transport cost of Service, care • political content and priorities • funding for appropriate intervention education curriculum • public policy & low criminalization ofteisk groups --MSM DUX worlar national policies intervention .encement of Laws • Onder equity Structural Institutional health system Institutional health system • provision of appropriate services og harm reduction • competent, supportive providers • per navigatoradvision . friendly, culturally competent environment . Convenientesponsive services sufficient resourcing of Services • confidentiality/privacy service integration support tools (SMS, appt reminder Individual Knowledge information risk perception • condom negotiation disclosure . motivation • emotions . substance denial of status • Intentions/readiness to change • reactions to stress coping • personal income GES • physical the • distrust of health . fear of stig • self-efficacy to adhere prever • mental health statu attitudes towards condom • perceived social norm • perceived contro • personal beliefs about treatment • Outcome expectandes • Empowerment Community Interpersonal network Individual Community stigma peer pressure social norms-multiple partners, gender roles, condoms community organization mobil • Israch" heteros . position of religious, cultural opinion leader cultural norms, masculine
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Background: Diarrhea is still a major public health issue in Ghana, and it costs the country's health-care system a lot of money. Understanding the probable determinants of spatiotemporal patterns of diarrhoea is critical for prioritising district-level hotspots of diarrhoea incidence for effective targeted interventions. The goal of this study was to determine the spatiotemporal variability of diarrhoea incidence in Ghana and to investigate how climatic and socioeconomic factors influence the patterns.
Methods - We used monthly district-level clinically diagnosed diarrhoea data from the Ghana Health Services' Center for Health Information and Management from 2012 to 2018. In Ghana, we used a hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal modelling framework to assess potential associations between monthly diarrhoea incidence at the district level and meteorological variables (mean temperature, diurnal temperature range, surface water presence) and socio-demographic factors (population density, Gini index, District League Table score). We also looked to see if these relationships were consistent throughout the four agro-ecological zones.
Results: There was significant spatial variation in diarrhoea patterns throughout the districts, with high diarrhoea risk areas clustered primarily in the transition and savannah zones. The average monthly temporal patterns of diarrhoea exhibited a weak biannual seasonality, with major and minor peaks coinciding with the major and minor wet seasons, respectively. Both climatic and socio-demographic characteristics were shown to be associated with diarrhoea risk, but the degree and direction of the correlations varied among the four agro-ecological zones. Overall and across the agro-ecological zones, surface water presence was consistently positive, while diurnal temperature range and population density were consistently negative.
Conclusions: While the overall incidence of diarrhoea in Ghana is decreasing, our findings identified high-risk districts that could benefit from district-specific customised intervention techniques to strengthen control efforts. These findings can be used by Ghanaian health policymakers to assess the efficacy of existing programmes at the district level and to prioritise resource allocation for diarrhoea reduction.