Five Types of Product Flow
Continuous process, assembly line, batch, job-shop, project.
Output is made in a continuous fashion and tends to be highly standardized with very high volumes of production. Tend to make commodity products. Flexibility is very limited.
Characterized by a linear sequence of operations. Makes discrete products such as automobiles, refrigerators, computer, printers, etc. Very efficient but also very inflexible
Production of products in batches or lots. Each batch of the product travels together from one operations or work center to another. Often use general-purpose equipment that is not specialized, offering flexibility.
Batch Flow Process
The _____ _____ of a batch operation results in considerable production scheduling and inventory challenges.Jumbled flow
A batch operation uses a _____ layoutprocess
The assembly line process uses a ______ layoutProduct
Job Shops make products to _______ order using a ________ layout
What is the difference between batch and job shop?
In a job shop, products MUST be made to CUSTOMER ORDER
The _____ form of operations is used for unique or creative products
How is the throughput ratio calculated?
Total Processing Time/Total Time in Ops. x 100%
Most batch and job shop operations have a TR of
10 to 20 percent; rarely higher than 40 percent
In the _____ process, individual orders can be identified during production.
The key performance measures for an MTO process are
Length of time from design to delivery (lead time) AND percentage of orders completed on time.
Three critical management tasks for MTS process
1. Forecasting 2. Inventory Management 3. Production Planning
Performance measures for an MTS process are...
Percentage of orders filled from inventory
In ATO, the subassemblies are ______ and the final assembly is ________
The order penetration point for MTS is After final assembly
The order penetration point for MTO
Either before fabrication or before ordering materials from suppliers
The order penetration point for ATO is
After fabrication but before final assembly
Four things to consider when choosing MTS/MTO and Assembly, Batch or Project
1. Market Conditions 2. Capital Requirements 3. Availability and Cost of Labor 4. State of Technology for process and product
On the product dimension (horizontal) of the product-process matrix is
The life cycle of a typical product
On the process dimension (vertical) of the matrix...
The various processes are represented, from project to continuous process
This entails setting up a process for one product or product line separately from other processes within the same facility.
Six different types of focus
1. Product Focus 2. Process Type 3. Technology 4. Volume of Sales 5. MTS & MTO 6. New Products and Mature Products
A strategy to provide products in lot sizes of one in high volume
Traditional mass production is built on
Economies of scale
Mass customization depends on _________ that is, a high variety of products from a single process
Economies of Scope
Three Forms of Mass Customization
1. Modular production and assemble-to-order (ATO). 2. Fast changeover (zero setup time between orders). 3. Postponement of options.
The considerations required for process selection include the ________ of the product and whether the product is ____________ or _____________.
Two ways to CLASSIFY process selection
By Product Flow (continuous, job shop, batch, etc.) By Order Fulfillment (MTO, MTS, ATO)
The production of dishware is an example of what type of process
Amount of ti
me it takes to design, make and deliver a product is known as what
Percentage of Orders filled from stock is known as what
Technology risk is highest in which process? Lowest?
Assembly line, batch, project
Low volume, low standardization corresponds to what process on the product-process matrix?
Low volume, multiple products corresponds to which process on the product process matrix?
Some companies can move to a larger middle ground on the product-process matrix by adopting what?
Flexible manufacturing and modular design. (mass customization)
T/F Change usually occurs simultaneously on the product-process matrix.
Economies of scope refers to a high variety of products from a ________ _________
T/F mass customization means providing customized products at approximately the same cost as mass production.
What approach does New Balance take when producing its shoes?
__________ is used to defer a portion of production until the point of delivery.
_____ - ______ ________ i's a key enabler of mass customization.
What is the difference between pollution control/prevention and pollution practices
Control and prevention are structural investments, while practices are changes in the way processes are used.
With MTS, the replenishment cycle is _______ from the customer order cycle